[Home]

Gay/Lesbian Liberation Timeline

Timeline Event: 1892, "The word `lesbian' is first used in a newspaper article in the New York Times and the article is entitled `Lesbian Love and Murder'."


Timeline Event: 1924, "The New York Times first uses the word `homosexual'.  It is in a review of the book The Doctor Looks at Love and Life, by Dr. Joseph Collins, which included a 
substantial chapter on homosexuality."


Timeline Event: 1948,"Life magazine publishes an article entitled `Test By Portraits: Pictures of pathological Types Help Diagnosis of 
Mental Illness'. Of course, two of the sixteen photographs are that of `homosexuals'."


Timeline Event: 1950s, "The New York Times routinely uses the word `perverts' to describe homosexuals."


Timeline Event: 1955, "People Today, a national magazine, provides sympathetic coverage of a gay organization.  This was the 
first instance of positive reporting about gay issues by a mainstream news source."


Timeline Event: 1963, "The New York Times publishes a large feature entitled `Growth of Overt Homosexuality Provokes Wide Concern: 
Condition Can be Prevented or Cured, Many Experts say: Conflicting Points of View Spur Discussion of Inverts.'"


Timeline Event: 1964, "Life magazine publishes an unprecedented look at gay life, entitle `Homosexuality in America'."


Timeline Event: 1969, "The Los Angeles Times is boycotted for refusing to allow the word `homosexual' to appear in any advertising."


Timeline Event: 1977, "Harvey Milk is endorsed by the San Francisco Chronicle, a mainstream paper."


Timeline Event: 1978, "Time magazine publishes a homophobic caricature of `Gay Bob' the world's first gay doll, showing him with 
false eyelashes, lipstick, rouge and a lim wrist.  They later apologized for reinforcing stereotypes."


Timeline Event: 1981, "The first story to bring AIDS (though still unnamed as such) to the general public appears July 3 in The New York Times.  It is entitled `Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals.'"


Timeline Event: 1984, "The Wall Street Journal begins using the word `gay' as an adjective."


Timeline Event: 1987, "The New York Times begins using the word `gay' as an adjective."


Timeline Event: 1989, "The San Francisco Examiner runs an unprecedented sixteen day report entitled `Gay in America' detailing what it is like `to live as a gay or lesbian person in American 20 
years after the Stonewall Riots knocked down the closet doors and forced the nation to confront its most virulently disliked minority'. The Examiner interviewed thousands of people in the 
Bay Area and across the country to study gay and lesbian Americans, American society and the often uneasy intersection between them."


Timeline Event: 1990, "The San Francisco Examiner runs a long feature in its Style section on gay and lesbian dance clubs, featuring The Box, which it reported `attracts a dance mad collection of 
blacks, whites, straights, gays, Asians, Hispanics and more'."


Timeline Event: 1992, "Publisher of the New York Times, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. announces that diversity will be a priority at the paper of record.  By the end of the year, The Times has 
become a leader on reporting gay and lesbian issues, which has significant influence on other media.", "Newsweek runs a cover story entitled `Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins 
of Homosexuality' discussing recent studies on the possible biological origin of homosexuality."


Timeline Event: 1993, "Newsweek and New York Magazine finally discover lesbians, each running a cover story on so-called `lesbian chic'."

Military/Gay Timeline:1778, "Baron Frederich von Steuben, one of Europe's greatest military minds and a homosexual man, is engaged to train and discipline the disparate armies of the thirteen 
rebellious American colonies.", "After being discovered in bed with a private, Lt. Gotthold Frederick Enslin becomes the first know soldier to be dismissed from the U.S. military for homosexuality."

Military/Gay Timeline:1916, "Punishment of homosexual soldiers is first codified in American military law.  The Articles of War, which take effect the following year, include `assault with the 
intent to commit sodomy' as a capital crime."

Military/Gay Timeline:1919, "A revision of the Articles of War of 1916 includes the act of sodomy itself as a felony.", "Dispatching a squad of young enlisted men to act as decoys, the U.S. Navy 
initiates a search for `sexual perverts' at the Newport, Rhode Island Naval Training Station.  Based on information the plants gather, twenty sailors and sixteen civilians are 
arrested on morals charges by naval and municipal authorities.  This is the first known attempt to purge homosexuals from the military."

Military/Gay Timeline:1920-1930s, "Homosexuality continues to be treated as a criminal act and thousands of gay soldiers and sailors are imprisoned.  The military's move to transform homosexuality 
from a crime to an illness does not take place until the massive mobilization of World War II."

Military/Gay Timeline:1941-1945, "Nearly ten thousand enlisted people receive dishonorable `blue discharges' for homosexuality from the armed forces, so called because they are typed on blue paper."

Military/Gay Timeline:1942, "The Armed Forces release the first regulations instructing military psychiatrists to discriminate between homosexual and `normal' service members.  Those who 
`habitually or occasionally engaged in homosexual or other perverse sexual practices' are deemed `unsuitable for military service'."

Military/Gay Timeline:1943, "Final regulations are issued banning homosexuals from all branches of military service.  These have remained in effect for the last fifty years, with only slight modifications."

Military/Gay Timeline:1950, "The U.S. Congress establishes the Uniform Code of Military Justice which sets down the basic policies, discharge 
procedures and appeal channels for the disposition of homosexual service members."

Military/Gay Timeline:1957, "A 639 page Navy report, called the Crittenden Report for the captain who headed the committee, concludes that there is `no sound basis' for the charge that homosexuals 
in the military pose a security risk.  The Pentagon denies the existence of this report for nearly twenty years.", "Federal courts rule that military personnel may appeal military court 
decisions to civil courts.  This allows lesbians and gay men discharged for homosexuality to appeal to civil courts."

Military/Gay Timeline:1966, "Gay groups stage the first demonstrations protesting the treatment of lesbians and gays in the military."

Military/Gay Timeline:1975, "After being dismissed for homosexuality, Sgt. Leonard Matlovich sues the Air Force to be reinstated.  Matlovich is thrust into national attention when he is 
featured on the cover of Time magazine with the headline `I Am a Homosexual: The Gay Drive for Acceptance'.  NBC subsequently makes a TV movie of his story.  His suit drags on until 1980 
when a federal judge orders Matlovich reinstated.  Instead of re-entering the Air Force, Matlovich accepts a settlement of $160,000. Matlovich becomes a gay rights activist and dies of AIDS in 1988."

Military/Gay Timeline:1981, "During the last week of the Carter administration, Deputy Secretary of Defense Graham Claytor issues a revision in his department's policy to state for the 
first time that `homosexuality is incompatible with military service.' Though Claytor notes that this is not officially a change in policy, the revision is designed to make clear that 
homosexuality is grounds for discharge.  The revision is implemented by the Reagan administration."

Military/Gay Timeline:1986, "Discharged lesbian drill sergeant Miriam Ben-Shalom wins a ten year battle with the U.S. Army Reserves when a court orders her reinstatement."

Military/Gay Timeline:1987, "U.S. Naval Academy Midshipman Joseph Steffan, at the top of his class, is discharged six weeks prior to graduation because, when asked if he was gay, he answered 
honestly.  Though a three judge panel of the DC Circuit Court of Appeals rules in Steffan's favor in 1994 and orders his reinstatement, the government appeals the decision to a full 
panel of judges.  In a major setback in early 1995, the full Court of Appeals upholds Steffan's dismissal."

Military/Gay Timeline:1989, "Members of Congress who support lifting the military ban release draft copies of two internal Pentagon reports that find homosexuals in the military pose no security 
risk and in many cases make better soldiers than heterosexuals."

Military/Gay Timeline:1990, "Sgt. Perry Watkins wins a ten year court battle against the Army, which discharged him in 1981 for homosexuality.",
"ROTC cadet James Holobaugh is discharged from the corps on the grounds of homosexuality and ordered to repay his $25,000 scholarship."

Military/Gay Timeline:1992, "The General Accounting Office reports that almost seventeen thousand service men and women were discharged for homosexuality between 1981 and 1990, at a cost of $493,195,968 
to replace them.", "Presidential candidate Bill Clinton promises, if elected, to repeal the military's ban on gay and lesbian service members, because there is no legitimate 
justification for the exclusionary policy.", "The Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps program creates a policy requiring midshipmen to sign an affidavit stating that they agree with 
the military's ban on homosexuals and will refund scholarship money if they are found to be gay."

Military/Gay Timeline:1993, "January: President Clinton issues a Presidential Memorandum instructing Defense Secretary Les Aspin to develop by July of that year an `Executive Order ending discrimination 
on the basis of sexual orientation in determining who will serve in the Armed Forces'.  At the same time, Clinton issues an interim policy that preserves all existing restrictions on 
homosexuals in the military but ends the practice of questioning recruits about their sexual orientation.", "April, Secretary Aspin asks the Rand Corporation a nonprofit research 
organization to provide `information and analysis that would be useful in helping formulate the required draft executive order'.  Aspin also forms a fifty member Defense Department 
Military Working Group to study the issue.  Three weeks after its first meeting, the group recommends continuing the ban, with the sole change of instructing commanders not to ask soldiers or recruits about their sexual orientation.", "March-July: The Senate Armed Forces Committee, headed by Senator Sam Num holds public hearings to consider the ban.", "May-July: 
The House Armed Services Committee also conducts hearing.  At both House and Senate hearings, the overwhelming majority of those testifying are service members opposed to lifting the 
ban.", "July: Secretary Aspin signs a directive adopting the April recommendation of the Military Working Group.  One week later, the Senate and House Committees issue their `findings'. 
Both recommend codifying Aspin's directive.", "August: The Rand Corporation releases its independent report, stating that `there is ample reason to believe that heterosexual and 
homosexual military personnel can work together effectively'.  The government buries the study.", "September: The House and Senate both pass legislation discouraging homosexual 
enlistment in the military, the language of which is tougher than Clinton's `don't ask, don't tell'.  The legislation would allow a future defense secretary to reinstate questioning of 
recruits about their sexual orientation.  Within days, Clinton signs the measure with no fanfare and little public notice."

Military/Gay Timeline:1994, "March: Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund and the American Civil Liberties Union bring a lawsuit in federal court on behalf of six lesbian and gay service 
members, the first direct constitutional challenge to the military's policy.  The government immediately seeks discharge proceedings against some of the plaintiffs.", "April; Federal 
District Judge Eugene Nickerson grants the plaintiffs' preliminary injunction, preventing the military from initiating discharge proceedings while the case is active.", 
"June: U.S. District Court Judge Thomas S. Zilly orders the Army to reinstate Colonel Margarethe Camemrmeyer to the National Guard.  In his ruling, Zilly holds unconstitutional 
the old version of the military ban barring service by lesbians and gay men.  Colonel Cammermeyer, a twenty seven year veteran of the Army and National Guard and chief nurse of 
the Washington State National Guard, was discharged from the military in June 1992 after she disclosed her sexual orientation during an interview for top security clearance."

Military/Gay Timeline:1995, "`Don't ask, Don't tell' is challenged in a number of appeals courts, with some victories and some losses for gays in the military.", 


Gays & Religion Timeline: Third Millennium B.C., "The first joint homosexual burial take place. The Tomb of Two Brothers at Thebes is an 
Egyptian sepulcher that contains the remains of two men, Niankhnum and Khnumhotep, who are believed to have been 
lovers.  The walls of the tombs have bas reliefs that show the two men embracing."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1900 B.C., "According to the Book of Genesis, the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed with fire and brimstone.  
This is interpreted by Philo of Alendria centuries later and then by religious writers to have been a wrathful God's 
punishment for the homosexuality of the inhabitants."

Gays & Religion Timeline: A.D. 60, "Saint Paul writes certain biblical passages, particularly Romans 1:26-27 and I Corinthians: 6-9 which are 
often used to prohibit/protest homosexuality.  As twentieth-century scholar John Boswell indicates, this interpretation 
does not necessarily reflect Saint Paul's original meaning, which has been changed through translations."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 533, "Homosexuality and blasphemy are proclaimed to be equally to blame for earthquakes, famines, and pestilences by 
Byzantine emperor Justinian I when he combines Roman law and Christian ethics.  Castration is ordered for any lawbreaker."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 650, "Priests are issued The Cummean Penitential, a manual that spells out repentance for different levels of 
homosexual sin.  The age of the offender and the nature of the offense are taken into consideration."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1252, "St. Thomas Aquinas begins his theological teaching.  Aquinas pronounced that God created genitalia for 
no purpose other than reproduction and decreed that homosexual acts were "unnatural" and heretical.  Though he did not 
originate these ideas, he had powerful influence with the church and the narrow-mindedness he espoused continues today."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1310, "All French members of the Order of Templars are arrested and charged with sodomy, heresy and being in league 
with the Moslem' many are tortured and executed.  King Phillip the Fair of France, who ordered this action is said to have 
benefited enormously from property confiscated as part of the arrests.  The accuracy of the allegations is still debated by present-day scholars."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1450-53, "The Spanish Inquisition is empowered by Pope Nicholas to investigate and punish homosexuality."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1583, "A pronouncement of Christianity by the Third Provincial Council of Peru tells the native Indians of Lima 
that `sodomy, whether with another man, or with a boy, or a beast... carries the death penalty... and the reason God 
has allowed that you, the Indians, should be so afflicted and vexed by other nations is because of this vice that your 
ancestors had, and many of you still have.'"

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1620-1725, "Approximately 350 persons are accused of witchcraft in colonial New England, of who 78 percent are 
women and a number of those thought to have been lesbians.  In total, 35 people are executed, 28 of whom are women.  More 
than half of the accusations, trials and executions took place in the town of Salem, Massachusetts, from 1692-1693."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1641-42, "The Massachusetts Bay Colony becomes the first of several New England colonies to incorporate into its laws 
the language of Leviticus 20:13: `if a man lieth with mankinde, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed abomination, they both shall surely be put to death.'"

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1916, "The first gay church, an Anglican-derived Liberal Catholic Church is founded in Sydney, Australia, by Charles Webster Leadbeater."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1946, "George Hyde, a youth minister in the independent Catholic Movement, forms a church in Atlanta which is thought 
to have been the first American church organized primarily for homosexuals."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1956, "The first documented gay church, the Church of ONE Brotherhood, is founded in Los Angeles by Chuck Rowland.  It lasts only one year."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1957, "The Catholic Church, while emphasizing that it believes homosexuality to be a sin, recommends its decriminalization by endorsing
the Wolfden Report.  This report published by the British government, recommended the legalization of homosexual acts between consenting adults."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1964, "The Council on Religion and the Homosexual is founded in San Francisco by the Reverend Ted McIlvenna and other clergy members `to promote continuing dialogue between the church and the homosexual.'"

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1967, "The Glide Methodist Church and the Glide Foundation of San Francisco launches one of the first economic 
boycotts on behalf of gay rights by not only stating that they will not buy goods and services from companies that 
discriminate against homosexuals, but encouraging others to follow their lead."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1968, "Rev. Troy Perry, a gay Pentecostal minister, conducts a service for twelve people gathered at a house in 
Huntington park, California.  This was the first meeting of what was to become the United Fellowship of Metropolitan 
Community Churches, a nondenominational church for the gay community.  Only two years later, MCC had over five hundred members."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1969, "The Church of Christ's Council on Christian Social Action adopts one of the first position statements on 
homosexuality, in which it calls for the decriminalization of homosexual activities between consenting adults.", "The first 
denominational religious organization for homosexuals begins as a rap group for gay and lesbian Catholics in San Diego.  
After moving to Los Angeles, the first chapter of Dignity is founded in 1970."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1971-85, "Following a rap session at the Los Angeles Metropolitan Community Church, two gay men and two lesbians 
discover they are all Jewish and decide to form their own temple.  Beth Chayim Chadishm holds its first service in July 
of 1972 and are chartered on July 19, 1974, by the union of American Hebrew Congregations, making it not only the first 
gay and lesbian synagogue, but also the first gay religious organization of any kind to be officially recognized by a 
national body.  In 1977 the congregation acquired its own building, dedicated in 1981.", "The United Church of Christ in 
San Carlos, California, ordains William Johnson, making it the first Christian denomination to ordain an openly gay 
candidate.  Johnson came out in 1970 while studying at the Pacific School of Religion in Berkely, California."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1973, "The first bisexual religious organization, the Committee of Friends on Bisexuality, if founded by Stephen 
Donaldson in Ithaca, N.Y.  They issue the `Ithaca Statement on Bisexuality' during their first gathering in June, 1972, which 
is thought to be the first statement on bisexuality-as well as pro-bisexuality- by any religious body.  The committee ended 
in 1977.", "The Unitarian Universalists become the first denomination to establish a lesbian and gay office.  Three 
years earlier, a resolution was passed by the general assembly banning discrimination against gays in the church."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1978, "Rabbi Allen Bennet allows himself to be outed in the San Francisco Examiner, making him the first openly gay 
rabbi.", "Witchcraft and the Gay Counter Culture, by Arthur Evans, a historical view of heresy, gayness and the witch hunts of Europe and England is published."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1979, "The Radical Faeries are established when Harry Hay, a pioneer of gay liberation, organizes a first gathering 
of approximately two hundred men in the Arizona desert.  The Faeries are a national organization of free spirits and flower 
children known for their pagan-influenced celebration of what's different and special about gay men."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1984, "The Unitarian Universalists become the first modern Christian denomination to perform gay and lesbian union ceremonies."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1986, "A fourteen page letter issued by Pope John Paul II calls gay people `intrinsically disordered' and states that homosexuality can never be reconciled with church doctrine."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1988, "Mary Elizabeth Clark takes vows of poverty, chastity and obedience at an Episcopal church in San Clemente, 
California, making her the first transsexual nun, though the religious community she founded, Sisters of St. Elizabeth of 
Hungary, remains unsanctioned by the bishop of the Episcopal Church.  A man named Michael Clark until 1974, Sister Mary 
Elizabeth is also the only person to serve in the military as both a male and a female."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1989, "Two-thirds of the sample of a survey of 101 gay Catholic priests estimated that 40 to 60 percent of the 
Catholic clergy are gay.", "A sample survey of 101 gay Catholic priests found that `Leading a celibate life' was 
reported by 63 percent as a frequent source of problems.", "36.6 percent of 101 gay Catholic priests surveyed had been 
occasionally sexually active with another person.", "82.2 percent of 101 gay Catholic priests surveyed said they would 
`probably' or `definitely' stay in the priesthood."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1989, "Surrounded by controversy, Robert Williams is ordained as an openly gay Episcopalian priest.  One month later he publicly comments
that `monogamy is as unnatural as celibacy' followed by the remark that Mother Teresa would be better off `if she got laid'.  In 1991, Williams resigned his priesthood."

Gays & Religion Timeline: 1992, "MCC's application for observer status within the National Council of Churches of Christ is voted to not be 
acted upon.  The debate regarding MCC's status causes some NCC member churches to side with MCC, including the United Church 
of Christ, the United Methodist Church and the Swedenborgian Church.  Several other groups indicate that they will pull out 
of the group if MCC's request is granted, particularly orthodox and predominantly black denominations.", "A four page 
letter from the Vatican entitled `Some Considerations Concerning the Catholic Response to Legislative Proposals on 
the Non-Discrimination of Homosexual Persons' is issued to the U.S. Bishops.  Basically the letter states the Vatican's 
opposition to such legislation and urges bishops to actively oppose gay civil rights laws.  Bishops in Seattle, Honolulu 
and other places make the surprising move of publicly dissenting."


Gays & Sports Timeline: 776 B.C., "The first Olympics are held in ancient Greece.  Women are excluded and they compete in their own Heraea Games every four years."

Gays & Sports Timeline: A.D. 393, "The end of the Greek Olympics, when the Christian Roman emperor Theodosius the Great bans the games and orders all of the buildings at Olympia destroyed."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1636, "A Jesuit missionary in North America observes Huron Indians playing a game with a hide-covered ball hurled 
from a curved stick with a pouch at the end.  The Indians call the came `bagataway', but the French dub it `la crosse' because the stick resembles a cross."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1800s, "Tessis is first played in monastic courtyards, but around the reign of Henry VII becomes a `royal' sport 
played on the `courts' of Europe.  It is exported to the U.S. in the nineteenth century, when the first official tennis court is built in Boston in 1886."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1823, "Since American colonial days, men have been kicking around a pigskin.  But in 1823, a new kind of 
`football' called rugby after the British school where it is started, allows players not just to kick the ball but to pick 
it up and run with it.  In the U.S. this new version of the sport is quickly adopted and transformed into its more violent modern counterpart."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1837, "Although people have been swimming for at least two thousand years, this year the first swimming competitions, using the breaststroke are conducted in London."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1839, "According to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, N.Y., baseball is invented there by Abner Doubleday."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1844, "North American Indians win a 100-yard swimming contest in London, using an overarm stroke."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1845, "The rules of baseball are formalized and the now familiar diamond-shaped field is used at the New York Knickerbocker Club."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1855, "The first organized game of ice hockey is played in Kingston, Ontario."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1800s, "Swedish and German gymnasts begin performing acrobatic and tumbling routines in swimming areas, developing 
the sport of diving.", "The game of soccer which evolves from centuries of different ball games where participants are not 
allowed to use their hands, develops formal rules of play."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1880, "The first diving competitions are held in England, as a result of arguments among swimming clubs that claim to have the best divers."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1881, "The first American national tennis championships are held."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1886, "The New York Athletic Club holds the first track and field meet in the U.S."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1887, "A great moment in lesbian and gay sports history: The softball is invented in November at Chicago's Farragut 
Boat Club by tying a boxing mitt tightly with twine into a ball.  Within a few years, it spreads across the country.  
Because the ball is `softer' and the bases are shorter, softball becomes one of the few acceptable physical exertions for women."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1891, "Basketball is invented by James Naismith of the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts as an indoor sport to play 
between football and baseball seasons.  Women are encouraged to play."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1896, "The modern Olympic games are revived, brought about by a Frenchman, Pierre de Coubertin.  The first games were held in a restored stadium in Athens."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1972, "The Education Act of 1972 is passed, which contains TitleIX, prohibiting gender discrimination in 
educational institutions that receive federal funds.  For the first time, any institution receiving federal funds must 
equally allocate its resources to boys and girls."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1975, "The Education Act of 1972 is applied to sports.", "Reporter Lynn Rosellini writes a ground breaking series of 
articles on homosexual athletes, `Gays in Sports' in the Washington Star.  She can find no athlete who will talk openly 
about his or her sexuality until former NFL running back Dave Kopay agrees to speak and come out."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1970s, "Ed Gallagher, a closeted gay man, is a star lineman for the University of Pittsburgh football team.  He 
goes on to training camp for the New York Giants but is cut after just two weeks under suspicion of being gay."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1977, "Glenn Burke, a young outfielder with the Los Angeles Dodgers projected to be `the next Willie Mays' and at 
that time a closeted gay man, invents the `high five' during a game with the Houston Astro."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1979, "Glenn Burke is `released' from his contract with the Los Angeles Dodgers under suspicion of homosexuality."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1982, "Dr. Tom Waddell, a former Olympic decathlete, founds the Gay Games, a version of the Olympics for lesbian 
and gay athletes.  He is prevented by the Supreme Court from calling them `Olympic' games."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1983, "Bob Paris wins Mr. Universe and Mr. America titles.  He later `marries' Rod Jackson and becomes Bob Jackson-Paris."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1984, "Bruce Hayes, a gay man, wins a gold medal for the 800 meter freestyle relay at the Olympic Games.  Hayes later 
comes out and becomes a star of the Gay Games.", "Greg Louganis wins two gold medals in diving competitions."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1987, "Jerry Smith, former NFL tight end and lover of Dave Kopay, dies of AIDS, denying his homosexuality right up until the end."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1988, "Diver Greg Louganis wins two gold medals at the Olympics, after testing positive for HIV six months prior.", 
"Major league umpire Dave Pallone is fired for alleged involvement in a sex ring with teenage boys.  Pallone brings a 
suit against major league baseball and is cleared of all charges, though he does later acknowledge in his autobiography that he is gay."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1993, "Barry Meisel writes a series of newspaper articles on gay athletes for the New York Daily News, which is 
widely syndicated and published in papers throughout the country.  He finds that attitudes have changed very little 
since the time of Lynn Rosellini's investigation."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1994, "Gay Games IV are held in New York City, coinciding with the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Stonewall 
riots.  More than 15,000 athletes participate and 500,000 spectators watch", "Olympic figure skater John Curry dies of 
AIDS.", "Olympic diver Greg Louganis comes out as gay at Gay Games IV."

Gays & Sports Timeline: 1995, "In a television interview on 20/20, Greg Louganis tells Barbara Walters that he has AIDS."


Timeline Event: 1959, "A twenty-five-year-old British man dies of a mysterious disease in Manchester.  His doctor stores samples 
of his tissues for future research and since 1990, many scientists have believed that he was the first recorded person to die of AIDS."

Timeline Event: 1977, "A Danish woman surgeon in Zaire dies of Pneumocystis carinii (PCP) at the age of forty-seven."

Timeline Event: 1981, "An article headlined `Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals' appears on a back page of the New York Times on 
July 3.  The cancer is Kaposi's sarcoma and this is the first major reporting on what would later become knows as AIDS.", "A 
Canadian nun who spent thirty years in Haiti rehabilitating prostitutes dies of PCP.  She is reported to have had one male 
sexual partner while in Haiti and no other risk factors.", "The Centers for Disease Control release information about the 
growing number of cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among gay men. Researchers try to make a connection between 
the mysterious disease and the use of the drug amyl nitrite among gay men.", "Researchers begin to link the outbreaks of 
KS and PCP among gay men.  In an inaccurate and stigmatizing choice of names, a scientist dubs the new disease Gay-Related 
Immune Disorder.", "By the end of the year, the disease has begun to show up among intravenous drug users."

Timeline Event: 1982, "At the beginning of the year, the CDC reports that two hundred and fifty Americans have developed GRID and 
ninety nine of them have died.", "Writers Larry Kramer and Edmund White and four other men found the Gay Men's Health 
Crisis a nonprofit organization based in New York City to confront `gay cancer' by raising money for research.  GMHC 
also trains volunteers to staff a hotline for the community's questions and concerns about the disease.", "The Miami Herald 
reports that the `gay plague' has begun to show up among heterosexual Haitian refugees in the form of PCP and 
toxoplasmosis a brain infection.", "Lab tests on gay men at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital in New York City show a 
connection with cytomegalovirus and GRID and also indicate a serious depletion of the T-4 cells in the men's blood, 
suggesting a breakdown of their immune systems.", "The first reported cases of GRID among hemophiliacs appear.", "Because 
GRID has continued to show up in heterosexuals, researchers search for other more accurate acronyms for the disease.  
Among those suggested are ACIDS and CAIDS.  Finally, they settle on the new name of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency 
Syndrome), which is sexually neutral.", "CBS Nightly News with Dan Rather broadcasts one of the first network news pieces 
about AIDS.", "One of the first links between AIDS and blood transfusions is made at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, 
where a heterosexual Latino, who has not used IV drugs but has had massive blood transfusions, comes down with PCP.", "The 
American Red Cross advises lesbians not to give blood, as gay men have also been urged not to do.", "The Centers for Disease 
Control report cases of immunodeficiency and opportunistic infection in infants born to mothers at risk in New York, New 
Jersey and California.", "The CDC reports that 6 percent of the total AIDS cases are women."

Timeline Event: 1983, "In January, the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report on AIDS establishes the last major risk group for the 
disease: female sexual partners of male persons with AIDS.", "Two years into the epidemic, The New York Times does its 
first cover story on AIDS.", "U.S. scientists start to look for the beginnings of AIDS, and their findings take them back 
to Africa, where a Danish woman surgeon living in Zaire dies of PCP in the early 1970s.", "The phrase `innocent victims' 
begins to be applied to children and blood transfusion recipients, while other PWAs are stigmatized by `aberrant' 
sexual and drug-use behavior.", "In New York's gay newspaper, The Native, a March 7 cover story by Larry Kramer, `1,112 and 
Counting' not only indicts the CDC, The New York Times and the New York City health commissioner for lack of response to the 
AIDS crisis, it also lashes out at apathetic gay men who continue to have `careless sex' in the middle of an 
epidemic.", "Rev. Jerry Falwell, founder of the Moral Majority, tells his followers in Lynchburg, VA that AIDS is 
`the judgement of God.'", "A new release of the American Medical Association reports findings later discredited, that 
AIDS can be transmitted through casual contact, causing a rash of AIDS hysteria stories in the press.", "The CDC reports 
immunodeficiency among female sexual partners of men with AIDS.", "Ms. is the first women's magazine to mention AIDS in 
an article by lesbian writer Linsey Van Gelder, though the article does not specifically mention the risk to women.", 
"The CDC reports that almost 7 percent of all AIDS cases are women.", "Dr. Mervyn Silverman, San Francisco's public health 
director, orders the city's gay bathhouses to display warning posters against promiscuous sex and recreational drug use.  He 
threatens to close any bathhouses that do not comply.", "By Gay Pride weekend in 1983, seventeen hundred people have been 
diagnosed with AIDS in the U.S., and seven hundred and fifty of those have died.", "The CDC defines a new phenomenon called 
AIDS-related complex in which people show clinical conditions that seem to precede AIDS.", "In Geneva, Switzerland, AIDS 
experts from around the world convene at the World Health Organization headquarters for the first meeting on the 
international implications of the epidemic.  The disease has thus far been reported in thirty-three countries on five 
continents.", "CDC researchers determine that the incubation period for AIDS is somewhere between five and eleven years."

Timeline Event: 1984, "Dr. Robert Gallo, a National Cancer Institute researcher, informs the director of the National Health 
Institutes that he has isolated the virus that causes AIDS, a variant of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) family that 
he discovered in 1980.  He calls it HTLV-III.  Days later, researchers at the Pasteur Institute in Paris show proof that 
they have discovered the AIDS virus, which they call LAV.  In subsequent tests, it becomes clear that both Gallo and the 
French have isolated the same microbe.", "The Shanti Project, a community clinic in San Francisco since 1974, turns its 
focus exclusively to AIDS and HIV treatment.", "By early 1984, thirty-five hundred people in the U.S. have been diagnosed 
with AIDS, of whom fifteen hundred have died.", "The San Francisco AIDS Foundation receives a grant from the State 
Department of Health to develop a pilot program on women and AIDS, the first such study to focus on women.", "Mademoiselle 
publishes one of the first articles addressing women's risk of AIDS.", "With the announcement of the isolation of the AIDS 
virus, researchers push to develop a blood test and begin talk about an AIDS vaccine.", "After repeated reports about unsafe 
sexual practices in San Francisco bathhouses, Dr. Mervyn Silverman orders their closing."

Timeline Event: 1985, "The Food and Drug Administration approves the first HTLV blood test, which tests for the presence of 
antibodies to the AIDS virus in the bloodstream.", "Blood banks begin testing their blood supplies for the presence of 
antibodies to HTLV.", "By mid 1985, the CDC reports that eleven thousand Americans had contracted AIDS and of those, 
fifty four hundred have died.", "After repeated denials, movie and television actor Rock Hudson issues a public statement 
that he has AIDS and dies three months later.", "Following San Francisco's lead, public health officials in New York City and 
Los Angeles close gay bathhouses in their cities.  The New York City Health Department also closes the Mineshaft, a 
famous gay bar, after undercover inspectors report on the sexual acts taking place there."

Timeline Event: 1986, "Amid competition between the National Cancer Institute and the Pasteur Institute over which could claim 
discovery of the AIDS virus, an international committee renames it the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV.", "U.S. 
Surgeon General C. Everett Koop cites the growing threat of AIDS as the reason for much needed sex education in secondary 
schools on both heterosexual and homosexual relationships."

Timeline Event: 1987, "President Reagan undergoes testing for HIV when he becomes concerned about the blood transfusions he received 
when he was shot in 1981.  According to a White House spokesperson, he tests negative.", "The AIDS Coalition to 
Unleash Power is founded by writer Larry Kramer and others at a public forum at New York's Lesbian and Gay Community 
Services Center.  The direct action group stages its first protest in the financial district of the city, demanding that 
the Reagan administration stop dragging its feet on the approval of new drugs to help people with AIDS.", "Mandatory 
testing of pregnant women and marriage applicants is put in place in some states.", "The Journal of the American Medical 
Association publishes one of the first medical accounts of women and AIDS.", "President Reagan gives his first speech on 
AIDS, in which he calls for more HIV testing.  By this time, thirty six thousand Americans have been diagnosed with AIDS 
and almost twenty one thousand have died.", "U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese announces two new administration policies 
on AIDS: that all federal prisoners will receive mandatory HIV testing; and that immigrants and refugees known to be HIV 
positive will be denied entry to the country.", "AZT becomes the first FDA licensed antiviral in the fight against AIDS.  
AZT slows down the replication of HIV within healthy cells and helps prevent the onset of opportunistic infections, but it 
often has negative side effects, ranging from nausea to serious liver problems.", "The NAMES Project AIDS Memorial 
Quilt is displayed for the first time on the mall in front of the U.S. Capitol during the Second March on Washington for 
Lesbian and Gay Rights.", "San Francisco reporter Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On, which chronicles and 
criticizes the Reagan administration's blatant disregard of the AIDS pandemic, is published."

Timeline Event: 1988, "The World Health Organization decrees the first World AIDS Day..", "Delegates to the Southern Baptist 
Convention pass a resolution blaming gay men for AIDS and condemning homosexuality as `an abomination'.", "Studies 
report that antigay violence is on the rise, with AIDS phobia a factor in many reported instances.", "President Reagan's 
newly founded National AIDS Commission releases a report, with over five hundred recommendations for addressing the epidemic. 
 A presidential advisor reduces the list to ten items.", "AIDS is the fifteenth leading cause of death among Americans, 
according to the National Center for Health Statistics."

Timeline Event: 1989, "The first Advanced Immune Discoveries Symposium is held, centering on holistic and natural therapies for 
combating AIDS.", "The FDA approves the antiviral ddI, which slows down the replication of HIV in healthy cells.  Like AZT, 
though, ddI is shown to have side effects, ranging from neuropathy to diarrhea to pancreatitis.", "Over five thousand 
activists stage a massive protest in front of New York's St. Patrick's Cathedral, rallying against the Catholic Church's 
negative policies on homosexuality and AIDS.  A half dozen of the protestors chain themselves to pews inside the cathedral 
and are arrested.  This is the largest AIDS demonstration in the U.S. to date.", "A report from the National Association of 
State Boards of Education reveals that only twenty four states in the U.S. require HIV/AIDS education in public schools and 
of those, only three direct teachers to discuss condom use."

Timeline Event: 1990, "The third antiviral for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, dideoxycytidine, becomes available.", "The movie 
Longtime Companion, the first major Hollywood film about AIDS opens in theaters.", "According to the CDC, the number of 
deaths from AIDS in the U.S. has topped one hundred thousand.  There are approximately 1,100 AIDS deaths every week."

Timeline Event: 1991, "ACT UP leads a massive demonstration at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, to protest the 
agency's underestimating of the number of women with AIDS.", "The first clinical trials for the Salk immunogen vaccine, 
designed by polio vaccine pioneer Dr. Jonas Salk, take place in Philadelphia.  The Salk vaccine is for those already 
infected with HIV, to stop the erosion of their immune systems.", "A number of alarming studies across the U.S. shows 
that unprotected anal intercourse is on the rise among gay and bisexual men, resulting in a new wave of HIV infections.", 
"After protest demonstrations by lesbian health activists, Gay Men's Health Crisis adds lesbians to their mission statement. 
The following year, GMHC,'s Lesbian AIDS Project is founded and Amber Hollibaugh becomes its first co-ordinator.", 
"Professional basketball star Earvin `Magic' Johnson publicly announces that he has tested positive for HIV.  As when Rock 
Hudson revealed he had AIDS in 1985, the media rushes to cover AIDS issues that had held little interest for them before.  
Johnson is promptly appointed by President Bush to the National Commission on AIDS."

Timeline Event: 1992, "For the first time at both the Democratic and Republican national conventions, HIV positive speakers present 
the concerns and needs of people with AIDS, the `human face' of AIDS.  At the Democratic convention, Bob Hattoy, an adviser 
to Bill Clinton, and Elizabeth Glaser, a pediatric AIDS activist, take the podium, while at the Republican convention, 
Mary Fisher, the daughter of a prominent Republican fund-raiser, addresses the delegates.", "The National Commission on 
AIDS, established late in the Reagan administration says, `President Bush and the Department of Health and Human 
Services have failed to meet fully their responsibility in leading the national response' to the epidemic.  Magic 
Johnson, a highly visible member of the commission resigns to protest the President's inaction.", "The CDC initiates 
Business Responds to AIDS, an HIV prevention program encouraging businesses to take an active role in providing 
HIV/AIDS education to their employees."

Timeline Event: 1993, "The CDC once again expands their definition of full blown AIDS, increasing the number of indicator diseases 
that spell the onset of immunosuppression to include more of the opportunistic infections that attack women with AIDS.  
This far reaching move nearly doubles the number of people with AIDS across the country and is the most dramatic change 
in the CDC definition since the start of the pandemic.", "William Roper, head of the CDC and an opponent of sexually 
explicit content in federally funded AIDS education programs, is dismissed.  The Clinton administration maintains that AIDS 
prevention programs must address sexual behavior as well as IV drug use.", "At the Ninth International Conference on AIDS in 
Berlin, scientists report that the way in which HIV destroys the immune system are far more complex than previously 
thought, thus dimming the hope for a vaccine or `magic bullet' drug.", "President Clinton appoints Kristine Gebbie, the 
former Washington state health department director, to be his first `AIDS czar'.  AIDS activists view this as a weak and 
disappointing choice, since Gebbie has shown no commitment to the AIDS fight or experience in AIDS issues.", "AIDS becomes 
the leading killer of American men between the ages of twenty five and forty four and the fourth leading killer of women in 
the same age group.", "The U.S. Congress boosts spending for AIDS research in fiscal 1994 to the highest it has ever been, 
a full 27 percent over fiscal 1993.", "Tuberculosis begins to spread at an alarming rate across the U.S., posing a new threat to PWAs."

Timeline Event: 1994, "The CDC reports that in 1993 heterosexually acquired cases of AIDS rose 130 percent over the previous 
year, while cases attributed to homosexual sex rose 87 percent.", "The first HIV Prevention Summit is held in Dallas, 
Texas in an attempt to address the problem of the breakdown of safer sex and the resulting rise of new HIV infections, the 
`second wave' of HIV.", "The Concorde Project, a British-French study of AZT, concludes that the antiviral does not 
delay the onset of AIDS symptoms in those who are HIV positive, though it may prolong life in people with AIDS.", 
"Canada begins a two year inquiry into charges that health officials allowed HIV infected blood products to be 
distributed there after the HIV antibody test had been developed.", "AIDS czar Kristine Gebbie, widely criticized by 
AIDS activists for her low profile, lack of experience, and ineffectiveness, resigns from office.  In her place, Clinton 
names Patsy Fleming and African-American woman with a gay son who considers herself an AIDS activist.", "Recognizing that 
the search for traditional drug and vaccine therapies for AIDS has been ineffectual, the National Institute of Allergy and 
Infectious Diseases awards a $25 million grant for research in alternative treatments for AIDS."

Timeline Event: 1995, "New findings on the replication and mutation of HIV show that the immune system wages a fierce battle against 
the virus from the very beginning of infection, losing just a little ground each day until the virus eventually wins and 
immunosuppression sets in.  Research, scientists conclude, should focus on finding ways to boost the immune system's 
powers so it does not lose the battle.", "Olympic gold medalist Greg Louganis, considered by many to be the greatest 
diver of all times, announces in a television interview on 20/20 with Barbara Walters that he has AIDS.", "The CDC report 
that 50 percent of all new HIV infections are among women, with the disease being transmitted fastest among black and 
Latino women.  In 1994, the number of AIDS cases increase 151 percent for women, compared with 105 percent for men.", 
"Congressman Robert Dornan introduces a measure into the House of Representatives that would discharge all HIV positive 
people from the U.S. Armed Forces.  Although HIV positive people are not allowed to enlist in the military, Pentagon 
officials say there is no reason to dismiss those who become HIV positive during their service, as long as their health remains good."

HIV MEDICAL GLOSSARY

[AID, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, "A viral suppression 
of the immune system that weakens the body's ability to withstand a
variety of opportunistic infections, viruses and malignancies."

[ANO, Anonymous testing for HIV, "Testing using anonymous 
identification numbers to insure that results are not publicly 
released but given only to the tested person.", "See also Confidential testing for HIV."

[ANT, Antibodies, "Cells manufactured by the immune system to target and protect against toxins and infectious agents."

[ANT, Antibody test, "A blood test that reveals the presence of antibodies to HIV, indicating that viral infection has 
occurred.  The ELISA and Western blot tests are antibody tests."

[ANT, Antigen, "A virus, bacteria, or other foreign substance in the blood that stimulates the production of antibodies."

[ANT, Antigen test, "Blood test used to double check positive results of the ELISA or Western blot antibody tests; checks for the presence of HIV itself, not antibodies to the virus."

[ANT, Antiviral, "A treatment that suppresses viral activity.", AZT and ddI are antivirals."

[ARC, ARC, AIDS related complex, "A variety of AIDS related symptoms such as swollen glands, fever and diarrhea, that 
precede AIDS but are not severe enough to be included in the DCD definition of AIDS.", "This term is rarely used now and has been replaced by `HIV symptomatic'."

[ASY, Asymptomatic, "Being without the symptoms of HIV infection, even though one may test positive for HIV."

[AZT, Zidovudine, "FDA approved antiviral that slows down the replication of HIV within healthy cells and helps prevent the 
onset of opportunistic infections.  AZT often has side effects, ranging from nausea to serious liver problems."

[BAC, Bactrim, "Drug used to treat PCP."

[BCE, B-cells, "White blood cells that participate in the body's immune response to infection."

[BOD, Bodily fluids, "Any fluid produced by the human body, for example, blood, sweat, urine, breast milk, vaginal fluids, 
semen, pre-cum and saliva.  Those bodily fluids known to transmit HIV are blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk."

[CAN, Candidiasis, "A chronic infection with the normally harmless yeast organism, Candida Albicans.  In the mouth, this yeast infection is called thrush."

[CD4, CD4-cells, lymphocytes, "See T-4 (helper) cells.

[CD8, CD8-cells, lymphocytes, "See T-8 (suppressor) cells.

[CDC, Centers for Disease Control, "Federal agency of the Public Health Service that tracks the incidence and trends of communicable diseases, conducts research and licenses clinical laboratories."

[CHR, Chronic, "Persistent or of long duration."

[CLI, Clinical trials, "Drug trials using human subjects to prove drug safety and to determine dose levels."

[CMV, Cytomegalovirus, "A virus related to herpes that can produce retinitis (inflammation of the retina that can lead to blindness), pneumonia, hepatitis and colitis (inflammation of the colon).

[CON, Confidential testing for HIV, "Often given by private doctors and public and private hospitals, testing whose 
results will be recorded in the tested person's medical charts 
and may be disclosed without his or her permission.", "See also Anonymous testing for HIV."

[DDC, ddc, dideoxycytidine, "FDA approved antiviral used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, particularly for patients who are 
intolerant of or ineligible for AZT, fail AZT, or are intolerant of or ineligible for ddI.  ddc often has side 
effects, including peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis, diarrhea and dehydration."

[DDI,, ddI, dideoxyinosine, "FDA approved antiviral that slows down the replication of HIV within healthy cells and helps prevent the onset of
opportunistic infections.  DdI is used particularly for people who either do not respond well to AZT or who are in advanced stages of HIV infection
with severe immunosuppression, ddI often has side effects, including peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis, diarrhea and dehydration."

[DEM, Dementia, "Loss of normal brain function, evidenced as loss of memory, learning ability and motor control."

[ELI, ELISHA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, "A blood test that reveals the presence of antibodies to HIV, indicating 
that viral infection has occurred.  Often called the HIV or AIDS test, it is the most common test for HIV."

[FAL, False positive, "A positive test result, when the condition is in fact negative."

[FOO, Food and Drug Administration, FDA, "Federal government agency that tests and licenses drugs."

[FUL, Full-blown AIDS, "The state of a formerly asymptomatic HIV positive person developing one or more diseases that are symptoms of immunosuppression."

[HER, Herpes, "A family of viruses including herpes simplex (cold sores), herpes genitalia (affecting the genitals), CMV, chicken pox and shingles."

{HIG, High-risk behavior, "Any activity that increases the risk of HIV transmission by allowing the exchange of body fluids.  This may include, for example, unsafe sex and sharing IV needles."

[HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, "The virus thought to be the cause of AIDS."

[HIV, HIV negative, "The state of having no antibodies to HIV present in the bloodstream.  The person who tests negative is presumed to be uninfected with HIV.  Also called seronegative."

[HIV, HIV positive, "The state of having antibodies to HIV present in the bloodstream. The person who tests positive is presumed to be infected with HIV.  Also called seropositive."

[HOS, Host cell, "Infected cell."

[HPV, HPV, human pappilomavirus, "Virus associated with genital warts and cervical cancer, which is common for women with HIV/AIDS."

[IMM, Immune system, "The body's system of defense mechanisms, through which cells and proteins in the blood and other body fluids work together to attack infection and disease producing agents."

[IMM, Immunosuppression, "Weakening of the immune system that occurs as a result of HIV infection."

[INC, Incubation period, "Length of time between actual HIV infection and the appearance of the first signs and symptoms of that infection."

[IND, Indicator diseases, "Opportunistic infections designated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control as indicators of `full blown AIDS'.  PCP, KS, MAC, and CMV are among those indicator diseases."

[INT, Intravenous drugs, "Drugs injected directly into the bloodstream through a hypodermic needle."

[KS, Kaposi's sarcoma, "A rare skin cancer which appears as purplish lesions."

[LAT, Latency period, "See incubation period."

[MAC, MAC, mycobacterium avium complex, "Fungal infection normally seen in birds that attacks PWAs and is often misdiagnosed as the flu.", "the most
common opportunistic infection in PWAs", "also called MAI."

[MAC, Macrophases, "White blood cells that participate in the body's immune response to infection."

[MAI, MAI, mycobacterium avium intracellulare, "See MAC."

[NON, Nonoxynol-9, "A spermicide found in some lubricants and condoms, which may help prevent HIV transmission."

[OPP, Opportunistic infection, OI, "An infection that takes advantage of immunosuppression to attack a person's immune 
system.  The most commonly known opportunistic infections for PWAs are PCP, CMV, MAC and toxoplasmosis.  Some common 
opportunistic infections for female PWAs are PID, HPV and chronic vaginitis."

[PAN, Pandemic, "A worldwide epidemic."

[PCP, PCP, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, "A common parasitic infection that attacks the lungs, leading to the most common cause of death for people with AIDS."

[PEN, Pentamidine, "A drug used to treat PCP."

[PID, PID, pelvic inflammatory disease, "Infection that attacks a woman's fallopian tubes, ovaries and/or uterus."

[PRE, Pre-cum, "Clear fluid produced by a man's penis before ejaculation."

[PRO, Prophylaxis, "Preventive treatment."

[PRO, Protease Inhibitors, "A promising new class of antivirals in clinical trials that may prevent production of 
new virus in cells infected with HIV Therapy opens up a different line of defense against HIV."

[PWA, PWA, "Person with AIDS."

[RET, Retrovirus, "A virus that contains RNA rather than DNA as its genetic material.", "HIV is a retrovirus."

[SAF, Safer sex, "An array of sexual practices that may decrease the risk of HIV infection by preventing the 
transmission of bodily fluids during sex.  The standard `tools' of gay male safer sex are condoms and latex gloves.", 
"Some forms of safer sex are kissing, jerking off, phone sex and rubbing."

[SER, Seroconversion, "Development of antibodies to HIV."

[SPE, Spermicide, "A chemical that kills sperm."

[STD, STD, sexually transmitted disease, "Any disease that can be contracted through sexual behavior and practices.  Besides 
HIV/AIDS, STDs include syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, herpes, chlamydia and others."

[TCE, T-cell count, "A reading of the number of T-4 cells per millimeter of blood, used to determine how far a person's HIV infection has progressed."

[TCE, T-cells, lymphocytes, "White blood cells that direct the rest of the immune system and are the targets of HIV, include both T-4 and T-8 cells."

[T4, T-4 (helper) cells, lymphocytes, "Antibody-triggered cells that attack invading organisms and infections, also called CD4 cells."

[T8, T-8 (suppressor)cells, lymphocytes, "Cells that shut down the immune response when the infection or invading organisms have been destroyed, also called CD-8 cells."

[THR, Thrush, "See Candidiasis."

[TOX, Toxoplasmosis, "Infection affecting the brain."

[UNS, Unsafe sex, "High-risk sexual behavior, including sex without a condom or dental dam, that may lead to the exchange of bodily fluids and thus increase the odds of HIV transmission."

[VAG, Vaginitis, "Infection and inflammation of the vagina. When it is chronic, this can be a symptom of HIV infection in women."

[VEN, Venereal disease, "Another name for an STD."

[WES, Western blot test, "A test believed to be even more specific than ELISA, which identifies specific antibodies to HIV.  Used to double-check the results of ELISA."

[WHI, White blood cells, "All the cells of the immune system."

[WIN, Window period, "Period of time, usually six weeks to six months, between actual HIV infection and seroconversion, or the moment when the
body has produced enough antibodies to the virus to be detected by a blood test.  During the window period, HIV may be transmitted unknowingly."

[YEA, Yeast infection, "Vaginal infection that creates a white discharge."



[Contents] [Map] [Index] [Comment] [Search] [Home] [Up] [Previous] www.glinn.com Copyright © 1996-2003 by GLINN Publishing Corporation